|1951, 300th Birthday of Father José Vaz|
This a Post Independence stamp of 1951, 300th Birthday of Father José Vaz
1951, 300th Birthday of Father José Vaz PORTUGUESE INDIA, 3 Reis
The currency used on stamps was Rupia, Tanga & Reis (Real)
A brief monetary history:
- Rupia = 16 Tanga = 960 Reis, 1881- 1958
- Escudo (6 Escudo = 1 Rupia) =100 Centavos, 1958-1962
The Portuguese began issuing coins in 1521 in imitation of local Bijapur coins. The Portuguese continued to issue coins until the Goa mint was closed by the British in 1869. From 1871 on, coins for Portuguese India were minted in Lisbon. The Banco Nacional Ultramarino issued Portuguese India Rupias (INPR) at par with the Indian Rupee, divisible into 16 Tanga and equal to 960 Reis, beginning in 1881. The Rupia was replaced with the Escudo (INPE), divisible into 100 Centavos, on January 1, 1959 with 6 Escudos equal to 1 Rupee, causing the Portuguese to issue 30, 60, 300 and 600 Escudo notes. The Indian Rupee (INR) replaced the Escudo when Goa became part of India.
Blessed Joseph Vaz, (Konkani: Bhoktivont Zuze Vaz, Sinhala: Bhagyawantha Jose Vaz Piyathuma) (21 April 1651,Benaulim – 16 January 1711, Kandy) was a Catholic Oratorian priest from Goa. He is known as the 'Apostle of Ceylon'.
Fr. Vaz entered Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) during the Dutch occupation, when Calvinism was the official religion. He travelled throughout the island bringing the Eucharist and the sacraments to clandestine groups of Catholics. Later in his mission, he found shelter in the Kandyan kingdom where he was able to work freely. At the time of his death, Fr. Vaz managed to rebuild the Catholic church on the island. On 21 January 1995, he was beatified by Pope John Paul II in Colombo.
The third of six children, Joseph Vaz was born in 1651 at Benaulim, his mother's village. His parents, Cristóvão Vaz and Maria de Miranda, were devout Roman Catholics. Cristóvão belonged to a prominent Goud Saraswat Brahmin Naik family of Sancoale. He was baptised on the eighth day of the parish church of St. John the Baptist, Benaulim by Fr. Jacinto Pereira. Joseph attended the elementary school in Sancoale. He learned Portuguese in Sancoale and Latin in Benaulim.Joseph was a bright pupil and respected by his teachers and fellow students. He made such rapid progress in his studies that his father decided to send him to the city of Goa for further studies; where he did a course in rhetoric and Humanities at the Jesuit college of St. Paul. He further studied philosophy and theology at the College of Saint Thomas Aquinas in Goa city.
In 1675, Joseph was ordained a deacon by Dom Custódio de Pinho, the Vicar Apostolic of Bijapur and Golconda. In 1676, he was ordained a priest by the Archbishop of Goa, Dom Frei António Brandão. Soon after his ordination, he started going barefoot in order to live like the poor and acquired a reputation as a popular preacher and confessor. He opened a Latin school in Sancoale for prospective seminarians. In 1677, he consecrated himself as a "slave of Mary", sealing it with a document known as the "Deed of Bondage".
The Portuguese Viceroyalty of India (Portuguese: Vice-Reino da Índia Portuguesa), later the Portuguese State of India(Portuguese: Estado Português da Índia), was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India.
The government started in 1505, six years after the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, then settled at Cochin. Until 1752, the "State of India" included all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia, governed by either a Viceroy or a Governor from headquarters established in Goa since 1510. In 1752 Mozambique got its own government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Macau, Solor and Timor, being then confined toMalabar.
At the time of British India's independence in 1947, Portuguese India included a number of enclaves on India's western coast, includingGoa proper, as well as the coastal enclaves of Daman (Port: Damão) and Diu, and the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which lie inland from Daman. The territories of Portuguese India were sometimes referred to collectively as Goa. Portugal lost the last two enclaves in 1954, and finally the remaining three in December 1961, when they were taken back by India after military action (although Portugal only recognized Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime).
Postage stamps and postal history
Early postal history of the colony is obscure, but regular mail is known to have been exchanged with Lisbon from 1825 on. Portugal had a postal convention with Great Britain, so much mail was probably routed through Bombay and carried on Britishpackets. Portuguese postmarks are known from 1854, when a post office was opened in Goa. An extraterritorial British post office also was located in Damaun, selling British Indian postage stamps, between 1854 and November, 1883. British Indian stamps were available from the Portuguese post office at Goa, as well, from 1854 until 1877. A Portuguese post office opened at Diu in 1880.
The first postage stamps of Portuguese India were issued 1 October 1871 for local use. These were issued for local use within the colony. Portugal had a postal convention with Great Britain, so mail was routed through Bombay and carried on British packets. Stamps of British India were required for overseas mail.
The design of the 1871 stamps simply consisted of a denomination in the centre, with an oval band containing the inscriptions "SERVIÇO POSTAL" and "INDIA POST". In 1877, Portugal included India in its standard "crown" issue and from 1886 on, the pattern of regular stamp issues followed closely that of the other Portuguese colonies, the main exception being a series of surcharges in 1912 produced by perforating existing stamps vertically through the middle and overprinting a new value on each side.
During the World War I Portugal joined the Allies, which resulted in confiscating 6 merchant vessels (5 German and 1 Austrian) anchored in Marmugao port in Goa. The sailors were provided the status of "War Internees" and were allowed to correspond with their families via postal mail system, with a caveat of censorship of mails, both ways. These "War Internee" covers (Mid 1916 up to end of 1919) bearing censorship marks of Portuguese and French military authorities are considered Portuguese India philatelists' delight.
The last regular issue for Portuguese India was on 25 June 1960, for the 500th anniversary of the death of Prince Henry the Navigator. Stamps of India were first used 29 December 1961, although the old stamps were accepted until 5 January 1962. Portugal continued to issue stamps for the lost colony but none were offered for sale in the colony's post offices, so they are not considered valid stamps.
Dual franking was tolerated from December 22, 1961 until January 4, 1962. Colonial (Portuguese) postmarks were tolerated until May 1962. Portuguese India stamps were available for sale up to December 28, thus the period up to January 4 was an attempt to use up stocks in private hands. After January 4, Portuguese India stamps were completely invalid or demonetised.
Outstanding stocks of charity tax stamps were overprinted for fiscal use, but not used. Portuguese India fiscals were overprinted in early 1962 in paisa and rupees and extensively used.
One of the prominent citizens from Panaji, Mr. Carvalho created several combination covers, using low face value definitives of Union of India and Portuguese India, on each of the days up to January 4 including Christmas Day 1961. Most were readdressed to his daughter in pen. Due to the absence of back-stamps or circular date stamps (CDSs) denoting their arrival, it's unlikely that any of these went through the mail. Several unaddressed envelopes are to be found with similar combinations of Portuguese India and Union of India stamps in this time frame, the challenge being to obtain a postmark from each of the different days. Obtaining covers from late January to May 1962 with Portuguese India postmarks has proved to be quite difficult. These covers are scarce, but they don't command high prices, which is good for the collector, but not for the speculator. Much more scarce are the Prisoner Of War (PoW) covers sent by Portuguese civilian internees from Goa to Portugal between late December 1961 and March 1962. These were free franked covers with appropriate markings and command a high premium.
Portuguese India philately started with combination covers (British India) and ended with combination covers (Sovereign India).
Portugal's national stamp and postal systems went through a profound series of changes during the 1850s. Portuguese stamp collectors should familiarize themselves with the following terms. The words ''stamp'' in Portuguese is ''selo.'' The word ''collection'' in Portuguese is ''colecao.'' People who collect Portuguese cover stamps should also familiarize themselves with the concept of ''usados'' stamps.During its heyday as a minor European colonial power, Portugal maintained governmental authority over dozens of nations and micro-nations throughout the world. The home government set up postal bureaucracies in these countries, but, unsurprisingly, Portuguese stamp forgeries and corruption abounded. A very good book on the subject of postal malfeasances throughout the Portuguese empire is ''Forgeries of Portugal and Its Colonies,'' a well researched treatise published in 2002 by a man named D. J. Davies.Consider the Azores, one of Portugal's most treasured island possessions. Some of the most interesting postal stamps from the Azores are the ''Vasco da Gama,'' which was printed in 1898 and the ''King Manual'' and ''King Carlos'' issues, which went into printing in the early 20th-century. Azores stamp collectors should be aware that there are three main postal districts which printed stamps during the late 1800s.These three districts sold stamps for approximately 25 reis during the 1890s and early 1900s. You can tell stamps from these districts apart because each stamp series features a unique coloration. Look for the overprinted ''continente'' to tell these districts stamps apart from continental Portuguese stamps. In 1980, the Azores postal service released its first unique set in decades.